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Europe 1615: Prelude to War

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EUROPE 1619 (formerly called Europe 1615)

A DIPLOMACY VARIANT

by Matthew Medeiros

(Edited 2-26-2018)


Contents

INTRODUCTION

“Had Luther and Calvin been confined before they had begun to dogmatize, the states would have been spared many troubles.” - Cardinal Richelieu

July 31, 1619: Protestant leaders in Bohemia feared the fervent Catholic Ferdinand II, successor to Matthias, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, King of Bohemia and Hungary would infringe on their rights. The Bohemian confederacy is born seeking support and a leader. Will the Empire’s political and military influence suppress the cause, or maybe, just maybe, events will play out very differently in the hands of shrewd diplomats at the game table…

Europe 1619 is a Diplomacy variant that adopts the mechanics from Jim Dunnigan’s and Thomas N. Shaw’s diplomatic game Origins of World War 2 published in 1971. Europe 1619 is also inspired by other Diplomacy variants such as Ambition and Empire, Classic Payola, Machiavelli, Multiplicity, and Formal Diplomacy. Europe 1619 is played with 15 players, but can be modified for less. Each player represents one of the major and regional European powers of the early 17th century:


1 Austria, House of Hapsburg, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II

2 Denmark, House of Oldenburg, Christian IV

3 Spain, House of Hapsburg, Philip III

4 France, House of Bourbon, Louis XIII

5 Dutch Republic, House of Orange-Nassau, Maurice of Orange

6 England, House of Stuart, James I

7 Sweden, House of Vasa, Gustav II Adolf

8 Catholic League and Bavaria, House of Wittelsbach, Maximilian I

9 Protestant Union and the Palatinate, House of Palatine-Simmern, Frederick V

10 Papacy, House of Borghese, Pope Paul V

11 Poland-Lithuania, House of Vasa, Sigismund III

12 Electorate of Saxony, House of Wettin, John George I

13 Ottoman Empire, House of Osman, Osman II

14 Republic of Venice, Doge Antonio Priuli

15 Duchy of Savoy, House of Savoy, Charles Emmanuel I


Europe 1619 utilizes the standard rules from 5th Edition Diplomacy with modifications described in this rulebook.


OBJECT OF THE GAME

The object of the game is for a power to score 25 victory points at some year in the game (or achieve the highest score by the official end of the game). The player representing that power is the winner.

NOTES ABOUT THE GAME BOARD

Large minor states: Three minor states are composed of smaller provinces as shown below. When a political status is established for a large minor state, all provinces of the state are identified as aligned or unaligned or neutral.

Bohemian Confederacy (BOHC) = Bohemia (BOH), Lusatia (LUS), Silesia (SIL), and Moravia (MOR)

Brandenburg-Prussia (BRAP) = Brandenburg (BRA), and Prussia (PRU)

Lower Saxony (LOWR) = Kalenberg (KAL), and Brunswick (BRU)

Holy Roman Empire (HRE) = On the board, the HRE is outlined with a dull red and shadowed border.

Coastal provinces: Holstein (HOL) has two coasts. Moving a fleet from Copenhagen (COP) to HOL requires that the coast be specified. HOL (EC) – HOL (WC) or visa versa is not a legal move for a fleet. Andalusia (ANDL) has two coasts. Irish Earldoms (IRE) has two coast which needs to be specified when moving a fleet to that space from Munster or Ulster. A fleet cannot move from IRE (WC) - IRE (EC) or visa versa; nor can a fleet from the Celtic Sea move to IRE (WC), and visa versa; and same is true for a move from North Atlantic (ATL) to IRE (EC). A fleet in MID has access to MED, ANDL, and SHA; and visa versa. A fleet in POR may move to ANDL, and visa versa.

Copenhagen: COP connects directly with Scania (SCA), Bornholm (BOR), Skagerrak (SKA), North Sea (NTH), Helgoland Bight (HEL), and Holstein (HOL). Moving a fleet from BOR to SKA will require going through SCA or COP.

Supply centers: Each supply center is marked with a solid circle inscribed with a number. These markers (1) determine income during the Builds and Transactions Phase, (2) serves as a site for a build, and (3) are required for the Scoring Phase.

Confessional markers: Minor states will receive a Protestant marker (orange cross) or a Catholic marker (blue cross) or a Ottoman marker (green crescent moon and star) to indicate which confession has the two-thirds majority of influence in state. These markers are only placed in minor’s home supply center when aligned, and removed when captured. These markers are also used for scoring.

UNITS AND TOTAL MILITARY STRENGTH

Each army unit is represented by a square piece. Each fleet unit is represented by a narrow rectangular piece. All units of the minor states (a.k.a., minor units) are represented by sliver-colored pieces with the abbreviated name of the minor state inscribed. Units of the powers (a.k.a, major units) are designated by color as listed below:


Catholic Powers

Austria = RED

Spain = YELLOW

France = BLUE

Catholic League and Bavaria = CRIMSON

Papacy = DARK CYAN

Poland-Lithuania = BRIGHT CYAN

Venice = PURPLE-VIOLET

Savoy = GOLD


Protestant Powers

Denmark = PURPLE

Dutch Republic = BROWN

England = GREEN

Sweden = ORANGE

Protestant Union and the Palatinate = BRONZE

Saxony = BEIGE


Ottoman Empire

Ottoman = LIGHT GREEN


All units have the same strength at the start of the game (with exception to the Spanish unit in Flanders). However, major and minor army units may be bolstered to have a greater-than-one strength. This would be indicated by an inscribed number with a plus sign on the army unit or in a diamond flag for minor units. These units will attack, defend, and support with a strength equal to one plus the value inscribed on the unit or flag.

There can be only one unit in a province at a time, and a major army unit's strength cannot exceed 10, and minor army unit cannot exceed 5.

A power’s total military strength is the sum of all of its individual unit strengths on the board.


STARTING POSITIONS AND PROVINCES

Centers and units: At the start of the game, each power controls one or more centers and provinces. Some minor states will not have a supply center and unit. Those minor states with a supply center will also begin with a unit. Refer to the map for the starting positions of the units and territorial holdings of the powers.

Home provinces are as follows:

Austria = Vienna, Slovenia, Upper Austria, Styria, Royal Hungary, Transcarpathia, Tyrol, Upper Slavonia, Kremnica

Denmark = Copenhagen, Holstein, Norway, Scania

Spain = Madrid, Andalusia, Extremadura, Valencia, Aragon, Leon, Galicia, Cantabria, Naples, Milan, Free County, Liege, Brabant, Flanders

France = Normandy, Paris, Lyonnais, Provence, Brittany, Poitou, Guyenne, Gascony, Languedoc, Dauphiny, Burgundy, Champagne

Dutch Republic = Holland, Friesland

England = London, Lancashire, York, Wessex, Ulster, Munster, Scotland

Sweden = Stockholm, Dalarna, Kalmar

Catholic League = Bavaria

Protestant Union = Palatinate, Upper Palatinate

Papacy = Rome, Marche, Romagne

Poland-Lithuania = Warsaw, Danzig, Samogitia, Riga, Posen, Lithuania, Ruthenia, Podolia

Saxony = Saxony

Ottoman = Edirne, Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Serbia, Albania, Bosnia, Hungary

Venice = Venice, Dalmatia

Savoy = Turin, Savoy


Home centers and starting units are as follows:

Austria = A-Vienna and A-Slovenia

Denmark = F-Copenhagen and A-Holstein

Spain = A-Madrid and F-Andalusia (However, Naples, Milan, and Flanders are build sites for Spain they are not considered home centers. Naples, Milan, and Flanders begin with armies, but A-Flanders begins with strength +1.)

France = F-Normandy, A-Paris, A-Lyonnais, and A-Provence

Dutch Republic = A-Holland and F-Friesland

England = F-London and A-Lancashire (However, Scotland is a build site for England it is not considered a home center. Scotland begins with fleet.)

Sweden = F-Stockholm

Catholic League = A-Bavaria

Protestant Union = A-Palatinate

Papacy = A-Rome

Poland-Lithuania = A-Warsaw and A-Danzig

Saxony = A-Saxony

Ottoman = A-Edirne

Venice = F-Venice

Savoy = A-Turin


PHASES OF THE GAME YEAR

1 - Diplomatic Phase

2 - Orders Phase

3 - Adjudication Phase

4 - Retreat and/or Disband Phase

5 - Map Adjustment Phase

6 - Builds and Transactions Phase

7 - Scoring Phase


DIPLOMATIC PHASE

INFLUENCE AND PLACEMENT

During the Diplomatic Phase, players discuss their plans, alliances are made, tactics decided, and declarations of war considered. When the orders for the Diplomatic Phase are submitted the format will consist of (1) list of INF placements, (2) order for a diplomatic attack, and (3) declarations. INFs are discussed below.

At the start of each year Influence Points (INFs) are allotted to the powers as shown in the Influence Allocation Table (see table below).

During this phase players will distribute their INFs to the independent minor states (see List of minor states, below). However, there is an initial placement of INFs to the minor states prior to the start of the game (see INITIAL SETUP). Players should use all INFs available for the year and may not save unused INFs for the following year. Players cannot distribute more INFs than allotted for the year, and players may not lend out INFs, or remove INFs from a state once they are placed. INFs may be placed in a minor state that possesses both a supply center and unit, and INFs may be placed in a minor state that possess neither. As the game progresses, INFs will accumulate in the minor states, and can only be removed by a diplomatic attack.

To place INFs in a particular minor state, the player must submit an order in the following syntax:

number of INFs: [minor state]

An example of this is…

Order from FRANCE:

5: BRE

(means that 5 INFs of French influence will be placed in Bremen)

Note: Only Protestant powers can deploy INFs to the Bohemian Confederacy.


List of minor states that can be influenced

Minor State, Abbreviation, Unit Label (if applicable)

Bremen, BRE

Erfurt, ERF

Hamburg, HAM

Oldenburg, OLD

Paderborn, PAD

Pomerania, POM

Saarbrueken, SAA

Strasbourg, STR

Swiss Confederation, SWI

Trier, TRI

Wallachia, WAL

Moldavia, MOL

Ansbach, ANS, An

Bohemian Confederacy, BOHC, Bo

Brandenburg-Prussia, BRAP, Br

Catalonia, CAT,Ca

Cologne, COL, Co

Croatia, CRO, Cr

Genoa, GEN, Ge

Hesse, HES, He

La Rochelle, ROC, Hu

Irish Earldoms, IRE, Ir

Lorraine-Alsace, LOR, Lo

Lower Saxony, LOWR, Lw

Mantua, MAN, Ma

Mecklenburg, MEC, Me

Magdeburg, MAG

Modena, MOD, Mo

Sharifate, SHA, Mr

Parma, PARM, Pm

Portugal, POR, Pt

Stralsund, SRL, St

Baden-Wuerttemberg, WUR, Sw

Tunisia, TUN, Tn

Transylvania, TRA, Tr

Tuscany, TUS, Tu

Westphalia-Muenster, WES, We

Wuerzburg, WUE, Wz


THE DIPLOMATIC ATTACK

A diplomatic attack is when a player selects one state where he/she has deployed or will be deploying INFs and then directs a "political" attack against another player/power that also has INFs invested there or will likely be placing INFs there. The diplomatic attack is optional during the Diplomatic Phase, and each player is allowed to submit only ONE diplomatic attack order per year. The order should indicate the minor state where the attack occurs, and the target (opponent) of the attack. Typical syntax for the order of the diplomatic attack:

[minor state] > [power]

An example of this is

BRA > FRANCE

(means that which ever power submits this order it directs a diplomatic attack against French influence in Brandenburg)

Placement of INFs is determined first before diplomatic attacks are resolved. Diplomatic attacks are then resolved by a MUTUAL REDUCTION in the total INFs invested in the state. In the attack, the power with the lesser number of INFs placed removes all INFs and the power with larger number of INFs placed loses equal amount. If multiple attacks are ordered within a minor state, then the sequence of attacks is resolved based on the ATTACK ORDER (see Influence Allocation Table).

Declarations have no affect on diplomatic attacks (i.e., a power can perform a diplomatic attack against an ally within a minor state).


DECLARATIONS

Declarations allow players to declare war, to establish alliances, or to end war. These declarations are made during the Diplomatic Phase.

Declaration of war against another power: Declaration of war is announced during one Diplomatic Phase, and becomes effective in the next year. Declaration of war is made against an opposing power and all of its aligned states. A declaration of war allows a player to attack an enemy’s unit(s) and enter an enemy’s territories. If a power wishes to attack an opponent-aligned minor state, whether directly or indirectly with an aligned minor unit, it must declare war on the power that the targeted minor state is aligned to. An exception to this rule is explained below under additional rules to observe.


Austria, Spain, and German/Italian States of the HRE: Exceptions to the above rules are given under MOVEMENT rules.


Alliances: Declaration of an alliance with another player may be announced during a Diplomatic Phase, and becomes effective the following year. The powers involved in the making of the alliance must make the declaration for it to be official. (Example: If France, England and Spain decide to form an alliance and only Spain and England include the declaration in their orders, then Spain and England form an alliance and France will be excluded.) In an alliance, a power is not held liable if an ally declares war against another power. For example, if France and Denmark are allies, and France declares war against England, Denmark will not be at war with England, unless a declaration of war is made by Denmark or England against the other.


Notes on initial declarations:

-The Protestant Union cannot form an alliance with the Catholic League.

-Austria and Spain begin the game in an alliance.

-Austria and the Catholic League begin the game in an alliance.

-England and the Protestant Union begin in an alliance.

-Ottomans and the Protestant Union begin in an alliance.

-Spain and the Dutch Republic are at war.


Armistice: Players at war may use the Diplomatic Phase to announce an armistice to officially end hostilities. The armistice becomes effective in the following year. The powers wanting to end war must make the declaration for it to be official. (Example: If the Dutch are at war with England and only England declares an armistice, but not the Dutch, then no official armistice is passed.)


The Papacy: The Papacy can declare war against any power. However, no Catholic power can declare war on the Papacy unless any one of the following events has occurred:

- The Papacy captures a center.

- If the Papacy is allied with a Catholic power that is at war or declares war on another Catholic power, then the Papacy may be the recipient of a declaration of war from any Catholic power.

- If the Papacy supports an attack on a Catholic power, then it may be the recipient of a declaration of war from any Catholic power.


Sequence of declarations: If two players are in an alliance, then come into conflict, the alliance must first be officially ended before war is declared against each other. If two players are at war, and then find that an alliance would be beneficial, the conflict must first officially end before the alliance can be formed. Example: France and England are at war in 1623, but decide to end war and form an alliance. Then the announcement to end war occurs in 1624, becomes effective in 1625. In 1626 (or any year thereafter), England and France can now make a declaration of an alliance to be effective in the subsequent year. It’s important to note that in 1625 until when an alliance comes into effect, France and England are neither at war or in an alliance, and this will prevent a move or convoy of one power into the territories and aligned states of the other.


RESULTS, ALIGNMENTS AND CONFESSIONAL MARKERS

The referee presents the results of the Diplomatic Phase by reporting the status of each minor state to the players with a table, and the map color-coded. The referee also reports which declarations successfully pass as well as the effects of diplomatic attacks.

Every minor state has one of three alignment statuses at the end of the Diplomatic Phase:

UNALIGNED: A minor state without INFs is considered unaligned (grey-colored). Unaligned states are passable during the Order Phase, and may be occupied/captured.

ALIGNED: If a power holds more than 50% of all INFs placed in the minor state, then the minor state is considered aligned to the power, and passable or impassable during the Order Phase depending on the declarations that have been made. The minor state will then follow any order submitted to the minor state’s unit(s) by the power it is aligned to.

NEUTRAL: For two or more powers equally invested in a minor state, the minor state will be marked as neutral (white-colored). Or if 3 or more powers are invested in a minor state, and no one power holds the required >50% for an alignment, then the state is also considered neutral. Neutral states are impassable during the Order Phase. Neutral states can maintain units and maintain control of foreign provinces.


CONFESSIONAL MARKERS: A confessional marker (colored cross) can only be placed on a minor state’s home supply center during the Map Adjustment Phase when A) only the power(s) of one religious confession holds all of the INFs in that state; or B) when the power(s) of one religious confession holds twice as many INFs in the minor state as the other religious confessions. When a minor’s home center is captured, the marker is removed.

Catholic majority = blue cross

Protestant majority = orange cross

Ottoman majority = green crescent moon and star

ORDER PHASE

MOVEMENT

Effects of declarations: During the Order Phase players write and submit movement orders for their units on the board and for those minor units that are aligned to their power. A unit cannot be ordered to move into the territorial domains of an opponent and/or any minor states aligned to the opponent, unless either a declaration of war or an alliance is in effect between the two powers. Declaration of war is not required for a major unit or minor unit to move into an unaligned minor state (colored grey). Any unit may support holds, convoys, or support movement into a province with or without a declaration of war (as long as the support is legal). Movement into an aligned province (i.e., as to cause a standoff) is restricted unless a declaration of war or an alliance is in effect.

Rules for alliances: A member of an alliance CAN move freely through the territories and centers of an ally; this includes aligned minor states of the ally. A member of an alliance CANNOT dislodge or support the dislodgment of an ally’s unit (including the aligned minor units of the ally), even if that dislodgment is unexpected. An attack by a major unit on an allied unit does not cut support. This also applies to minor states aligned with the ally. Allies cannot capture each other's centers or the centers of their aligned states, but may occupy those centers (see Occupation by Proxy).

Austria, Spain, and German/Italian States of the HRE: Austrian, Spanish, Union/Palatine, Saxon, League/Bavarian, and Savoy units may attack foreign units that enter the HRE without a declaration of war (this also applies to aligned German/Italian units of the HRE as well), but the rules of alliances must still be followed.

Some examples:

(1) French units entering the HRE at Saarbueken (SAA) may be attacked by Union/Palatinate units without a declaration of war. However, if SAA is aligned with France, then Union/Palatine unit cannot enter SAA (it’s the presence of the French unit that allows the Union/Palatine unit to attack SAA).

(2) Danish units enter the HRE, and the Saxon-aligned Mecklenburg may attack Danish units without a declaration of war (however, if Denmark had formed an alliance with Saxony, Danish units are protected from an attack from Saxon units and Saxon-aligned Mecklenburg). An official declaration of war from Saxony against Denmark would be required for a Saxon unit or Saxon-aligned Mecklenburg unit to attack Holstein.

(3) Dutch at war with Spain enter Brabant. The League/Bavarian-aligned Cologne unit may be ordered to attack Dutch unit in Brabant without a declaration of war from League/Bavaria against the Dutch Republic.


Water regions: Water regions cannot be aligned, and are thus always passable; but the movement rules regarding units and the declarations as described above must be observed.


Additional rules to observe:

1- Any minor unit is automatically disbanded if dislodged.

2- A power cannot attack, dislodge, or support the dislodgment of an aligned minor state's unit, even if that dislodgment is unexpected. An attack by a power on an aligned minor unit does not cut support. [Example: Hesse is aligned with France. France cannot cut the support of a Hessian unit nor support the dislodgment of that unit.]

3- The capture of a minor state's home center leads to the disbanding of all its units, and the relinquishing of control of any foreign centers/provinces during the Map Adjustment Phase.

4- At the end of a movement phase, units should be checked on whether they can maintain their positions in a foreign province. Use the following guidelines:

4a- If the province is neutral, the foreign unit must retreat, or disband if no valid retreat can be made.

4b- If the province is aligned with a power that the foreign unit is not at war with or not allied with, then the foreign unit must retreat, or disband if no valid retreat can be made.

4c- If the province is aligned with a power that the foreign unit is at war with, then the foreign unit captures the province.

4d- If the province is aligned with a power that the foreign unit is allied with, then the foreign unit remains in the province (no capture occurs).

5- A major or minor unit occupying an ally’s province may be attacked if the attacking unit is at war with the ally. (Example: England is allied with Spain, and allows English unit to occupy Flanders, a Spanish territory. Dutch are at war with Spain but not with England. Dutch units may attack English unit in Flanders. If the Dutch were allied with England, the unit cannot be attacked.)

6- When a minor unit captures a province or supply center, then the province or supply center is colored according to the status of the minor state during the Map Adjustment Phase.


SECURING CONTROL OF A CAPTURED FOREIGN CENTER

For a power or a minor state to capture and maintain control of a foreign province or foreign center, it must maintain occupation. If the province is no longer occupied at the end of the Order Phase, it immediately reverts back to its independent status after the Map Adjudication Phase.

A captured minor state CANNOT be influenced by any power (that is, INFs cannot be placed while it is held by a foreign enemy unit). However, all INFs presently invested in the state are held in suspension, not removed or altered except by a diplomatic attack. A power may relinquish control of a center or province or minor state to reestablish its independent status by simply removing its occupational unit. When a minor state is liberated, the INFs that were held in suspension are put back into effect, and its political status reestablished, and its unit rebuilt (if it has a center). If a territory of a power is taken by a foreign unit, and then later liberated, the territory is restored to the domain of that power/state. Example: Normandy is captured/occupied by an enemy English unit. England then withdraws leaving Normandy unoccupied. Normandy is restored to France at the Map Adjustment Phase. This rule applies to minor states as well. For example, if Kalenberg, which is part of Lower Saxony (home center at Brunswick), is captured by a foreign unit and then later liberated, it is restored back to Lower Saxony. This also applies to:

- Lusatia, Silesia, and Moravia (as part of the Bohemian Confederacy)

- Prussia (as part of Brandenburg)

Additionally, if a minor’s home center is captured, its provinces are colored grey at the Map Adjustment Phase, and made passable during the Orders Phase.

Occupation by proxy: A power can substitute an aligned minor unit for its unit in a foreign province, or an ally’s unit, or a unit aligned with the ally, and thus the power may still maintain control of the province or center.


MOVING A BOLSTERED UNIT

A unit with bolstered strength is not treated as multiple units when moving on the board, but as a single unit with strength greater than 1. The unit cannot be split apart (however, its strength may be reduced by a retreat), nor can it merge with others. The bolstered unit moves, attacks, defends, and supports with the greater strength. When a unit has greater strength this is depicted on the board with plus sign and value on top of the unit or as a flag in the case of minor unit. So a unit with a strength of two is shown with a +1 on the top; a unit with a strength of 3 is shown with a +2 on top, etc. The maximum that a unit may be bolstered to is 10 (labeled with +9), and 5 for a minor unit. Additionally, the support provided by a bolstered unit can be broken by an attacking unit (or the combined strength of attacking units) in a one-to-one reduction (i.e., if a unit supporting with strength of 2 is attacked by a unit of strength of 1, then the support given will be rated at 1).


RETREATS

Un-bolstered army units cannot retreat. Fleet units cannot retreat. A bolstered army unit can retreat if a legal space to retreat to is available. When a bolstered army unit is forced to retreat, it loses one unit of strength. If a bolstered army unit is dislodged but unable to retreat, it is completely removed from the board.

BUILDS AND TRANSACTIONS PHASE

WEALTH AND INCOME

Each player begins with an empty treasury. Wealth is measured in treasury points or TPs (players may settle on a particular currency name for the period such as millions of ducats, millions of florins, or millions of talers). During the Builds and Transactions Phase all players receive income (as TPs) from home centers, and from captured foreign centers (value within a black circle as shown on map), and captured foreign provinces valued at 1 TP each.

Protestant Union and the Catholic League: The Protestant Union and the Catholic League receive income from aligned states as well, but only from those states within the HRE. Example: If the Catholic League maintains the alignment of Wuerzburg and Cologne, it receives 1 and 3 TPs, respectively, from those aligned states for a total of 7 TPs (this includes the income from Bavaria) at the Builds and Transactions Phase.


LOANS

This game allows for players to loan TPs to other players. If a player gives a loan, then the player should expect a repayment on an agreed upon time without interest, in parts or full (or a player may lend TPs without repayment). If a player gives a loan, he/she may demand an interest payment along with repayment. These scenarios are monitored by the referee, but not enforced by the referee, and the recipient of a loan is not penalized for defaulting. All of these transactions are conducted during this phase and reported by referee at the conclusion of the phase.


COST TO BUILD

During this phase players may purchase units based on the Military Cost Table. The cost to add one additional unit is equal to a value based on the current strength of the military. The power must have an unoccupied home center for a new build to be allowed. The number of new units that may be added is limited by the treasury and unoccupied home centers. To calculate the cost to add more than 1 unit during this phase, the player must assess the cost of one additional unit after one unit has been purchased. No power can have more than 15 units on the board (or a combined military strength greater than 15). For total strength of a military, just count up all the strengths of the units of a power on the board.


Military Cost Table

Image:MILITARY-TABLE_1619-2.jpg


Example: France wishes to add two units during the income and build phase. At a military strength of 4 (4 units each with a strength of 1), it will cost 9 TPs to add one more unit. To add the second unit, France considers the new size of the military at 5 units. From 5 to 6 units, it would cost an additional 15 TPs, provided that the purchase does not put France below 0 TPs in the treasury. If that is the case, then France cannot build the second unit.

Bolstering the strength of an army unit: In the same manner as building a new unit, a player may increase the strength of an ARMY unit only. The unit must be on a home center or a captured foreign center or an allied center for its strength to be bolstered.

Note: The bolstering of a unit in a foreign center reflects the local voluntary enlistment, local conscription or the hiring of mercenaries commonly practiced during this period of time.

Adjusting strength: A player may, during the build phase, reduce the strength of a bolstered unit to allow for a new build in a home center. However, a player CANNOT reduce the strength of unit and bolster the strength of another during the same build phase; nor can a player disband a unit and bolster another in the same phase.

Minor states: Minor states build based on the number of centers it holds: The allowable number of units that a minor can maintain is equal to number of centers it holds (that is the home center and captured foreign centers), and a new build is allowed if the home center is unoccupied. A minor state will AUTOMATICALLY build if it holds more centers than units (irrespective of the strengths of its current units). Coastal minor states will by default build fleets, but the aligned power may indicate the preferred unit to the referee.

Building a unit for a minor state: A power may build a unit for a minor state so that the minor state can exceed the number of allowable units as described above. A power may bolster a unit for a minor state as well. The minor state does not necessarily need to be aligned with the power, but it must be aligned and not unaligned or neutral. The cost to add one additional unit or bolster is calculated in the same manner as building/bolstering a new unit for a power (see above). The minor state’s home center must be unoccupied for a new build to be allowed, and the minor’s unit must be on a center for a bolster to occur. There is no limit on how many units can be purchased for the minor or the number of bolsters. In subsequent Builds and Transactions phases, the minor’s new units or bolstered units are not counted as part of the power’s overall military strength. If a purchased unit is lost (or other unit) due to combat (dislodgment/disbanding), the unit would need to be re-purchased to be replaced.

Ottoman fleet: The Ottomans may build a fleet in Edirne (EDI). This fleet can only move to Greece to have access to the Mediterranean regions.

ELIMINATION

A power that does not control any of its original home centers (that is, all home centers have been captured by foreign enemy units) at the end of an Order Phase it is considered eliminated, irrespective of controlled/captured foreign centers. When a power is eliminated, all units are disbanded at the Map Adjustment Phase, and the foreign centers that were held are then liberated, restoring them as independent minor states, and to their pre-occupational status. INFs from the eliminated power are removed from all minor states on the board where the power had deployed to during the game, and the statuses of these minor states reevaluated.

Important rules about elimination for Spain and England: Spain is eliminated if Madrid and Andalusia are both captured. Flanders, Milan, and Naples become new independent states that may be influenced. If both London and Lancashire are captured, then England is eliminated and Scotland becomes a new independent state.

Double elimination rule. If an attacking power captures the remaining home centers of an opposing power at the same time during a movement phase the opposing power captures the remaining centers of the attacks power, then both power are eliminated.


SCORING PHASE

Referee scores the players individually during the Scoring Phase as follows:

1- For each captured foreign supply center the player earns 1 point for each point of value for the center.

2- For each corresponding confessional marker present on the board the player earns 1 point.

3- For each captured foreign province, the player earns 1 point (this does not include foreign centers).

4- For each lost home supply center the player loses 1 point for each point of value for the center.

5- For each lost domestic province the player loses 1 point (this does not include home supply centers).

Austria and Bohemia: If Austria captures Bohemia and holds on to it, Austria gains an additional 5 victory points. Bohemian center is double-bordered to remind other players of this bonus for the player of Austria.

First player to reach 25 points wins the game regardless of the year. However, the game officially ends at the Scoring Phase of 1648, with highest scoring player taking victory. In case of ties, players may agree to extend the game by one or more years to break the tie, or call a draw. If an extension of the game beyond 1648 is agreed upon, no further allocations of INFs will occur, and the Diplomatic Phase is skipped in the years following 1648.

INITIAL SETUP

Before the start of the game, there’s a fixed placement of INFs for some powers to approximate the historical allegiances of the minor states at around the years 1619 and 1620.

Initial INF placement goes as follows:

Spain = 5: POR, 3: CAT, 1: TUS

Papacy = 1: PAD, 1: WES

France = 1: LOR

Catholic League = 5: TRI, 5: COL, 5: WUE

Austria = 3: CRO

Protestant Union = 5: ANS, 5: STR, 3: BRAP, 5: HES, 5: WUR

Denmark = 1: LOWR, 1: BRE, 1: OLD, 1: MEC, 1: HAM

Ottomans = 3: TRA, 1: TUN, 1: MOL, 1: WAL

MODIFICATIONS FOR A GAME WITH LESS THAN 15 PLAYERS

14 PLAYERS: Convert the Papacy into an independent minor state. Reduce its Rome center value to 3. No Protestant power can deposit INFs to the Papacy, and Ottomans cannot deposit INFs to the Papacy.

13 PLAYERS: Modify the Papacy as described above, and then convert Saxony into an independent minor state. Reduce its center value to 3. Both the Union and the League will each have 1 INFs invested in Saxony to start.

12 PLAYERS: Modify the Papacy and Saxony as described above. Convert Savoy into an independent minor state. Reduce Savoyard home center value to 3. Only Catholic powers will be allowed to deposit INFs to Savoy. France begins with 1 INF in Savoy.

11 PLAYERS: Modify the Papacy, Saxony, and Savoy as described above. Convert Venice into an independent minor state. Reduce Venetian home center value to 3. Only Catholic powers will be allowed to deposit INFs to Venice.

10 PLAYERS: Modify the Papacy, Saxony, Savoy, and Venice as described above. The Catholic League is removed as a playable power. Convert Bavaria into an independent minor state. Keep Bavarian home center value at 3. Only Catholic powers will be allowed to deposit INFs to Bavaria. Austria begins with 3 INFs in Bavaria and 1 INF in Saxony. The Protestant Union begins with 3 INFs in Bohemia, and 1 INF in Saxony. The Protestant Union and Austria cannot form an alliance during the game.

PLAY-TESTERS

My gratitude to the following individuals for their time in play-testing of and making suggestions for this variant:

Frank Martin

Jeff Wyatt

Daithi Walshe

George Atkins

Adam Bagley

Jonathan Langman

Bryan Laferriere

Christian Schanner

Brian Diffell

Shane Cagney

Poul Hurup Lund-Andersen

Matthew Kelly

Michael Walters

Ewoud Wiering

Chris Lee

Chun Wang Lau

Andrew Port

Mark Utterback

Max Victory

Steven Caponigri

Aaron Havas

Greg Bim-Merle

Hugh Polley

Leonard Saffer


TABLES, RECORDING SHEETS, AND MAP

Europe 1619 Map and Starting Positions

This is a small low-resolution preview of the actual map. Actual full resolution of the map is 5800 x 5800.

Image:map_1619-6.jpg


Influence Allocation Table

Image:INFLUENCE-TABLE_1619-2.jpg


Influence Tracker

Image:influence-tracker_1619-1.jpg

Image:influence-tracker_1619-1-p2.jpg

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