1648 v8.5

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1648 is a nine-player Diplomacy variant set in Europe following the Peace of Westphalia, the first adjucated season being Spring 1649.

1648's rules are based upon those of Ambition & Empire, a variant designed by Jeff Kase and Baron Powell. As its most striking departure from Standard Diplomacy, the latter first featured armed neutrals whose actions players may secretly influence by bidding Diplomacy Points (DPs).

Should you be interested in joining or observing a future game, contact me.


The map (v8.5) with starting units:

File:1648 85 units.gif

The map (v8.5) with space abbreviations:

File:1648 85.gif


All the rules of standard Diplomacy apply save those noted below:

Great Powers

Initial Setup

Austria:                 A Prague, F Trieste, A Vienna.
Denmark-Norway:          F Christiania, F Copenhagen, A Holstein.
England:                 F Bristol, F London.
France:                  F Brest, A Marseilles, A Paris.
Poland-Lithuania:        A Cracow, A Vilna, A Warsaw.
Russia (Muscovy):        A Moscow, A Novgorod, A Voronezh.
Spain:                   A Flanders, A Madrid, F Naples, F Seville.
Sweden:                  A Abo, A Riga, A Stettin, F Stockholm (East Coast). 
Turkey (Ottoman Empire): A Belgrade, F Constantinople, A Damascus. 

Home Supply Centers (HSCs)

Austria: 	         Prague, Trieste, Vienna.
Denmark-Norway:          Christiania, Copenhagen, Holstein.
England: 	         Bristol, London.
France: 	         Brest, Marseille, Paris. 
Poland-Lithuania:        Cracow, Vilna, Warsaw.
Russia (Muscovy):        Moscow, Novgorod, Voronezh.
Spain:                   Madrid, Naples, Seville. 
Sweden:                  Abo, Riga, Stettin, Stockholm.
Turkey (Ottoman Empire): Belgrade, Constantinople, Damascus.

Flanders is not considered a Spanish HSC and therefore does not serve as a Spanish build site.

These great powers may also build (once controlled) in:

Austria: 	          Croatia, Transylvania.
Denmark-Norway:          Oldenburg.
England:                 Brunswick, Holland, Ireland, Morocco, Scotland.
France:                  Flanders, Lorraine, Savoy. 
Poland-Lithuania:        Courland, Ducal Prussia, Moldavia, Wallachia.
Russia (Muscovy):        Ukraine, Crimea.
Spain:                   Tuscany.
Sweden:                  Brandenburg.
Turkey (Ottoman Empire): Algiers, Tunis.                 

Minor Powers

In addition to the nine Great Powers, there is also a host of "minor powers", which are non-player neutral Supply Centres (SCs) representing the smaller states of Europe, North Africa and the Near East. These include (space names in bold) the following:

  • The Regency of Algiers (an autonomous province of the Ottoman Empire)
  • The Electorate of Bavaria
  • The Electorate of Brandenburg
  • The Duchy of Brunswick
  • The Venetian Colony of Candia
  • The Duchy of Courland (an autonomous fiefdom of Poland-Lithuania)
  • Kingdom of Croatia (representing independent-minded nobles and corsairs)
  • The Rhineland (representing various territories belonging to the Lower-Rhenish, Electoral Rhenish and Lower Saxonian imperial circles)
  • The Khanate of Crimea (a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire that includes the lands of the Crimean and Nagay Tatars)
  • Holland(representing the United Provinces of the Netherlands)
  • The Kingdom of Ireland
  • The Duchy of Lorraine
  • Mecklenburg (representing the Duchies of Mecklenburg)
  • The Principality of Moldavia
  • The Sultanate of Morocco
  • The Papal States
  • The Shahdom of Persia
  • The Kingdom of Portugal
  • The Duchy of Prussia (an autonomous fiefdom of Poland-Lithuania, called "Ducal Prussia" in the game as there's also a "Royal Prussia" space)
  • The Duchy of Savoy
  • The Electorate of Saxony
  • The Kingdom of Scotland
  • Swabia (representing various territories belonging to the Swabian and Upper Rhenish imperial circles)
  • The Swiss Confederation (Switzerland)
  • The Principality of Transylvania
  • The Regency of Tunis (an autonomous province of the Ottoman Empire)
  • The Khanates of Turkestan
  • The Grand Duchy of Tuscany
  • The Republic of Venice
  • The Cossack Hetmanate of the Ukraine
  • The Principality of Wallachia

Each minor power, although a "non-player," starts with a unit (unit colour is white). All minor powers start with an army except for the following minors that start with a fleet: Algiers, Candia, Courland, Ducal Prussia, Holland, Morocco, Portugal, Scotland, Tunis and Venice.

Minor power units prevent a Great Power from simply moving into an empty space and gaining control of the SC. To occupy a minor power SC, a Great Power will need to move in with support. A minor power unit that is forced to retreat is disbanded. If a Great Power does not occupy the minor power SC at the end of a Fall turn, the minor power’s unit is automatically rebuilt in the Winter.

A Great Power controls a minor power SC when one of its units occupies the space after a Fall turn has been played and completed. Once a Great Power gains control of a minor power SC, it can leave the SC vacant and still keep control of it as long as that SC is not occupied by another Great Power at the close of a Fall turn.

Minor power units do nothing but hold in place, unless the unit has been ordered by a Great Power using its Diplomacy Points.

Diplomacy Points

Each Great Power receives a set number of Diplomacy Points (DPs) every Spring and Fall turn. France gets 5 DPs, while the other Great Power are allocated 3 DPs each. Deduct 1 DP from a Great Power's DP budget for each SC it originally owned, yet is controlled by another power.

During each Spring and Fall turn, each Great Power may allocate DPs to minor powers that still have units on the map. A Great Power may only allocate one DP to a given power except for one minor power where an additional DP might be allocated (i.e. two).

A Major Power may not allocate any DPs to a minor power SC it intends to attack (or support an attack against) during the current game turn.

For each DP allocated, the allocating Great Power submits an order for that particular minor power’s unit. A Great Power may order a minor power to move, hold or support. A minor power's unit given a move order (also known as a "sortie") will not actually move. However, the move action may cut support and bounce other units.

If a minor power unit is given a move order that under Standard rules would result in it moving, the order will result in the unit remaining in its starting territory, but no other unit may retreat or move into the territory the minor successfully attacked. A unit already in the target territory at turn start will not be dislodged.

The GM determines how DPs have been allocated. In the event of a conflict, an order for a particular minor power’s unit is followed if it is supported by more DPs than any conflicting order.

For a sortie order for a client minor power to be considered by the GM when determining which order that minor power will execute, the sortie needs to be backed by its patron OR requires two or more DPs from other great powers. No such restrictions are in place for non-client minor powers.

Unused DPs may not be carried over into the next turn. They are simply lost.

Players are not required to tell each other how they allocated their DPs. Just as with negotiations, players may honour their agreements with other players or not, as they see fit. Only the GM will know how Great Powers have allocated their DPs. DP allocation is not published in the adjudication; only the end results are published.


In Spring 1649, Austria allocates one DP to Swabia to get it to support an Austrian attack on Bavaria. France allocates one DP to Swabia to get it to support a French attack on Lorraine. In support of Austria, Spain allocates one DP to Swabia to get it to support the Austrian attack on Bavaria. Although Austria, France and Spain each allocated one DP to Swabia, the Austrians get the Swabian support because the Spaniards supported the Austrian diplomatic efforts with the Swabians.


A minor power may be a client (or junior ally) of a great power (i.e. patron, senior ally).

Benefits of being a minor power's patron:

  • Any DPs a patron allocates to a client are initially boosted by one in value. After every two years this bonus increases by one (i.e. the DP bonus rises to 2 for the Spring 1651 season, to 3 for the Spring 1653 season, etc).

These are the respective powers' clients:

Austria:                Candia, Persia.
England: 	         Portugal, Scotland.
France:                 Bavaria, Lorraine, Rhineland, Transylvania, Venice.
Poland-Lithuania:        Moldavia, Saxony, Wallachia.
Russia:                 Turkestan, Ukraine.
Spain:                  Ireland, Savoy.
Sweden:                 Mecklenburg, Swabia.
Turkey (Ottoman Empire): Algiers, Crimea, Tunis.

Victory Conditions

As soon as one Great Power controls 18 SCs, the game ends immediately and the player representing that Great Power is the winner.

If two Great Powers each gain control of 18 or more SCs at the same time, the player representing the Great Power with the most SCs is considered the winner. If the two Great Powers each control the same number of SCs, the game continues until one player has 18 or more SCs and that player has more SCs than any other player.

Players may terminate the game by mutual agreement before a winner is determined. If this occurs, any decision reached by the players (e.g. concede game to one player, concede game to an alliance) must be accepted unanimously. If the players cannot agree, all players who still have pieces on the board when the game ends share equally in a draw.

Map Clarifications

• Constantinople, Copenhagen, Ingria and Scania are canal provinces and hence fleets located there are not designated as being on any particular coast. Note the Neva river (a thick blue line) runs through Ingria.

• Red arrows indicate that two spaces are adjacent to another.

• Constantinople encompasses Northwestern Anatolia, much of mainland Greece and Thrace as well as the Sea of Marmara. So the space borders the Ionian Sea (among other spaces) to the West.

• Note that the Atlantic and Indian Oceans adjoin. In other words, fleets may "circumnavigate Africa".

• Ducal Prussia and Courland are adjacent, whereas the Baltic Sea and Samogitia are not.

Civil Disorder (Optional Rule)

If a player is lost during the game, the GM is strongly encouraged to find a replacement player for the affected Great Power rather than have it lapse into civil disorder. In the event no replacement player is found and the GM declares the Great Power to be in permanent civil disorder, the following rules apply:

  • All units of the Great Power in civil disorder (GPCD) are immediately disbanded.
  • All SCs controlled by the GPCD that are unoccupied are immediately considered newly independent minor powers. Minor power army units are built in those minor power spaces.
  • All SCs controlled by the GPCD that are occupied by a unit belonging to another Great Power are unaffected. If the occupying Great Power moves its unit out of the GPCD’s SC so that the SC is unoccupied at the conclusion of a Fall turn, a minor power army unit is built there and that SC is considered a newly independent minor power.
  • For the remainder of the game, all newly independent minor powers are subject to the provisions of regarding minor powers. In particular, this means the new minor power can be influenced using Diplomacy Points and are considered a power's client if so designated on the map.
  • Once a Great Power is declared to be in permanent civil disorder, it may not be played by an active player again.

Game Notes

Two detailed articles about the variant may be found in previous DIPLOMACY WORLD issues:

First Article

Second Article

Note that these articles are based on an earlier variant version.

Brief Introduction to the Major Powers


  • Emperor Ferdinand III (1637-57)
  • Head of Privy Council: Max, Count Trauttmannsdorff (1634-50)

AUSTRIA is bang in the centre of the map. Lots of growth options (especially HRE, Italy, South-Eastern "Borderlands" minor power cluster), but doesn't really have the prospect of ever establishing a secure edge position.


  • King Frederick III

DENMARK-NORWAY is stringed along a North-South Axis. Effectively sandwiched between England and Sweden. Well-positioned to expand southwards into the HRE goodies. But that further stretches DN on that vertical axis. So at some point Denmark will have to consolidate a more compact position by either turning East or West. Position favours a nice mix of fleets and armies.

Commonwealth of England

  • Oliver Cromwell (Lord Protector, 1653-58)

ENGLAND starts off smaller than any other power. But in a good position to secure her Celtic backyard and thus gain those extra build sites. A major advantage balancing her modest initial size is that she holds considerable diplomatic trump cards. Danish-Swedish and Franco-Spanish relations have a lot of in-built friction. That's something Cromwell needs to exploit to good effect. Under wise rule, England will often prosper (as in the present game). Intially small, diplomatically favoured, most navally oriented power, island position: Those factors make England very unique.


  • King Louis XIV, the Sun King (1643-1715)
  • Chief Minister: Jules Mazarin (1643-61)

FRANCE enjoys the most compact starting-position of any power. All three initial SCs adjoin. This considerably helps home defence. Louis XIV is well-positioned to secure Lorraine, a potential French build site. Good access to the central minor power cluster. Plus access to the Atlantic sphere. One key question the Sun-King will have to adress is how to deal with Spain - a power which half-encircles "la hexagone". A Franco-Spanish alliance could be very strong. But the temptation for either power to attack the other is also there. Already a sortie by the Brest fleet into the Cantabrian Sea creates considerable difficulties for Spain. Though a move to ENG is also strong and might smother England before Cromwell can consolidate his position. More defensive play might mean bouncing A Flanders in Normandy and thus concentrating on the East for early builds. Successful eastward expansion could bring France into collision course with the Emperor. Indeed seizing the Imperial Crown is possible! But one can also nicely divide the central spoils with Austria: Lorraine, Switzerland and Savoy being within the French sphere, Swabia possibly left as a minor power buffer and Austria taking Saxony-Bavaria-Venice. With such an arrangement extended by France taking Tuscany and Austria the Papal States, the only place where the two spheres immediately touch would be on the Tus-Pap border. A perfectly sustainable arrangement for both, allowing France to focus on other theatres of operations. Or not, if France opts for a continued push eastwards.... I believe France faces lots of interesting challenges and options. Compact, somewhat more land-based than naval orientation, interesting question regarding Spanish "encirclement", Turkey very much a natural ally... Some key facets of France's position.


  • King John II Casimir (1648-68)

POLAND-LITHUANIA is a central power. Key for her is the Russo-Swedish-Polish triangle. I rate Austria and Denmark as natural allies. Good access to minor powers. A whopping three additional potential build sites promises considerable flexibility. Very much a land-based power. Non-contiguous home SCs somewhat complicate home defence. Though Warsaw is the only great power home SC no other rival can threaten within the opening year. So that compensates for Vilna being fairly vulnerable to attack. Relations with Russia are tricky. A bit like Austro-Turkish relations in Standard. Though with Sweden and Turkey on Russia's flanks, there are ways to keep the Czar honest without actually storming the East. Though if doing so, Poland might anchor her position along the map edge.

Russia (Muscovy)

  • Tsar Alexis (1645-76)

RUSSIA enjoys an edge position. But it may not feel like one. For, by design, it's nothing like the fairly secure corner position Standard's "witches" can call their own. Russia is best-placed to seize the Crimea. A potential Russian build site. The Polish-Swedish-Russian triangle (or Baltic quadrangle, if you include Denmark in the equation) is a key concern for the Czar. Courland being a point of Polish-Swedish contention presents considerable diplomatic opportunity. Regarding the Sublime Porte, Russia arguably holds the better diplomatic cards in that it can more gravely threaten Turkey than vice versa. Austria and especially Spain might prove very handy allies in a crusading campaign. A more secure edge position beckons following such a campaign. And would make Central Asia (Persia, Turkestan) an undisputed Russian domain. Russia is among the least maritime-oriented powers. But it has immediate access to the Northern Seas, potential access to the Baltic and Black Seas (also Caspian, but that is very much a backwater which very rarely should see any action).


  • King Phillip IV (1621-65)

SPAIN is all over the place! Flanders and Naples are very far removed from Iberia. Of these, Naples is far more important. Indeed, I rate Naples as Spain's most useful home SC. Building an empire in the Central Mediterranean may be key to Spanish success. As for Flanders, it's not even a home SC! So really no prospect of reinforcements there. It's more of a diplomatic pawn than a base for sustained expansion. So A Flanders should best be viewed as being subservient to Spain's wider cause. The Army of Flanders could indeed prove a useful wandering nomad. Spain's fundamentally a Mediterreanean power. She will try to secure the Maghreb for herself and link up Iberia with Naples. Naturally such Mediterranean ambitions impinge on Turkish interests. Spain's nightmare is a Franco-Turkish alliance against her. As such, any attack of hers against either could see the other quickly joining the party. This danger seriously complicates plans for attacking either and means that Spain should adopt a very broad diplomatic outlook, making sure France and Turkey are kept preoccupied in other theatres of operations. Spain, yet more than other powers, needs to play the whole board! Spanish summary: Far-flung domains, four initial units, threat of Franco-Turkish alliance, generally naval orientation, needs to play the "whole board" yet more than others, generally perceived as strong and as such probably often at a disadvantage in DP contests, can consolidate a powerful Mediterranean corner position.


  • Queen Christine (1632-54)

SWEDEN shares two characteristics with Spain: Both have four non-contiguous initial SCs. Though these are all arrayed around the Baltic. As such, turning the Baltic into a Swedish lake should be a priority. Denmark most immediately poses a threat to such Baltic hegemony, but so might Russia and Poland further down the road. As for expansion at the expense of minor powers, Stockholm might not have the easiest time of it. In Northern Germany, Sweden has the first claim to Brandenburg, but beyond that SC, it'd be stepping on other powers' toes. Indeed, the HRE might be described as a dangerous pool of sharks. Especially the two Scandinavians' spheres of interest tend to overlap there. As for the Baltic SC cluster (Ducal Prussia, Courland), expansion there poses potential difficulties with Poland. In brief: Sweden may be envied by others for starting off with four units. But in all likelihood with have to work harder for her first gains! Indeed, such are those difficulties that Sweden may be among those powers most ready to immediately invade another great power. The position thus encourages early aggressive play as befits Vasa warrior-kings!


  • Sultan Mehmed IV, the Hunter (1648-87
  • Regent: Kösem Sultan
  • Grand Vizier: Sofu Mehmed Pasha (1648-49)

TURKEY might consider itself a corner power. But that corner is initially very vulnerable. Her neighbours have good reason not to let her consolidate that corner position. To the West, the two Habsburg powers are natural allies. They could very effectively pool DPs. The Venetians on Crete could thus help the Spaniards storm Constantinople. Or the Wallachians ease the Austrians' path into Belgrade. And then there's the Czar... Any move by the Czar into Armenia will cause the Sultan fits! So while Turkey benefits from plenty of growth options around her, I'd say no other power is as vulnerable to a devastating opening attack. If the Sultan overcomes that initial vulnerability, then much can be made of that position. Armies and fleets may well play an equal role in Turkish plans. Perhaps moreso than any other power. Diplomatically speaking, France is very much a natural ally. And Spain arguably the most dangerous foe. The Med may often amount to an expensive Turkish-Spanish zero-sum contest and may often be Turkey's primary theatre of operations.

Version Changelog since v2.0

  • Asterisk = SC province
  • @ = adjacent to
  • > = renamed


  • Space Additions: Karelia, Persia*, Polotsk, Trondheim, Tunis*, Urals
  • Space Removals: Archangel, Foix, Lancashire, Lyon*, Smolensk
  • Altered Adjacencies: Constantinope* @ Belgrade*/Illyria, Leon @ Gascony/Aragon, Novgorod* @ Norwegian Sea, Seville @ Morocco, Voronezh @ Armenia/Persia*
  • Name Change: Vitebsk > Smolensk


  • Space Additions: Caspian Sea, Mesopotamia, Sardinia
  • Altered Adjacencies: Astrakhan @ Persia*


  • Altered Adjacencies: Christiania* @ Lapland
  • Name Changes: Trondheim > Northern Norway


  • Space Additions: Azerbaijan, Candia*, Permia, Turkestan*
  • Altered Adjacencies: Norwegian Sea @ Karelia, Novgorod*, Permia
  • Name Change: Urals > Siberia


  • Space Additions: Hesse, Lower Saxony*


  • Space Additions: Cantabrian Sea, Sicily
  • Altered Adjacencies: Flanders* @ North Sea, Bavaria* @ Saxony*


  • Space Addition: Lake Ladoga


  • Space Additions: Gulf of Sidra, Luxembourg, Strait of Sicily
  • Altered Adjacencies: Lombardy @ Papal States*, Paris @ Luxembourg


  • Space Additions: Franconia, Royal Prussia
  • Altered Adjacencies: Armenia @ Karaman
  • Name Changes: Normandy > Picardy, Prussia > Ducal Prussia


  • Space Additions: Onega, Smolensk
  • Altered Adjacencies: Moscow* @ Norwegian Sea/Permia
  • Name Changes: Polotsk > Polish Livonia, Smolensk (old space) > Vitebsk


  • Rules Change: Victory criterion lowered from 18 to 15 SCs
  • Space Additions: Arabia, Indian Ocean, Sahara, Terra Incognita (impassable)
  • Altered Adjacencies: Damascus @ Indian Ocean (thereby bicoastal), Franconia @ Hesse
  • Name Changes: Eastern Mediterranean Sea > Levantine Sea, Western Mediterranean Sea > Barbary Sea, Mid-Atlantic Ocean > Atlantic Ocean, North-Atlantic Ocean > Caledonian Ocean, North Sea > German Sea


  • Rules Change: England is entitled to 3 DPs each (rather than just 2) for the opening year's spring and fall seasons.
  • Space Additions: Black Ruthenia
  • Altered Adjacencies: Brest* @ Marseille*


  • Space Additions: Extremadura, La Mancha
  • Altered Adjacencies: Lombardy @ Tyrolia


  • Rules Change: Victory criterion increased from 15 to 16 SCs
  • Altered Adjacencies: Black Ruthenia @ White Ruthenia
  • Name Changes: Rhineland-Westphalia > Rhineland, Marseilles > Marseille
  • Cosmetic Map Change: Lombardy's borders redrawn so as to include the Free State of Grisons (i.e. the later Swiss canton of Graubünden) instead of a portion of Venetian territory.


  • Rules Change: HRE-specific rules abolished
  • Space Additions: Albania, Bosnia, Styria
  • Space Removals: Azerbaijan, Devon (incorporated into London), Illyria, Onega
  • Altered Adjacencies: Astrakhan @ Siberia, Moscow @ Severia & White Ruthenia, Novgorod @ Karelia, Permia & Siberia, Belgrade @ Adriatic Sea


  • Rules Change: France gets 6 DPs, while the other Great Powers receive only 3.
  • Altered Adjacencies: Franconia @ Vienna


  • Space Removals: Styria


  • Rules Change: Victory criterion increased from 16 to 17 SCs
  • New Minor Power: Croatia (i.e promoted to SC/minor power status)
  • Space Removals: Gulf of Sirte
  • Altered Adjacencies: Bristol @ Ireland


  • Rules Change: Victory criterion increased from 17 to 18 SCs
  • Space Additions: Cornwall


  • Rules Change: Certain powers have vassals. Their DPs allocated to these are increased by one in value. Once controlled, the vassal's SC serves its overlord as a build site.
  • Space Additions: Styria
  • Space Removals: Cornwall
  • Altered Adjacencies: Bristol no longer borders Ireland


  • Vassal Status Change: Croatia is considered a Turkish vassal.
  • Unit Change: Austria starts with a fleet in Trieste instead of an army.


  • Space Addition: Gulf of Venice


  • Altered Adjacencies: Levantine Sea @ Strait of Sicily & Tunis.
  • Rules Change: Victory requires not only 18 SCs, but also 2 more SCs than the second-strongest power.


  • Space Additions: Anhalt, East Frisia, Brunswick
  • Space Removal: Lower Saxony


  • Space Removal: Yorkshire
  • Rules Change: A surviving vassal's SCs count for victory purposes towards its suzerain's SC total.
  • Rules Change: Minor powers may perform sorties. At least one player needs to spend two DPs on a sortie order for it to be valid.


  • Vassal Status Change: Ducal Prussia is no longer a Polish vassal. Nor is Savoy a French one anymore.
  • Rules Change: France's DP budget is reduced from 6 to 5 DPs.
  • Rules Change: The DP bonus increases by one after every three turns.
  • Rules Change: -1 DP penalty for each originally owned SC which is foreign-controlled.
  • Rules Change: Certain powers have junior allies. Their DPs allocated to these are increased after every three turns by 1 in value.
  • Rules Change: HRE minors count towards Austria's victory tally. Austria also receives beginning with Fall 1650 a DP bonus for these.
  • Ally Additions: Bavaria, Portugal, Rhineland, Savoy, Transylvania become French allies.
  • Build Site Additions: Croatia and Transylvania for Austria, Ducal Prussia and Moldavia for Poland, Crimea and Ukraine for Russia.


  • Rule Change: Remote Turkestan Rule
  • Rule Change: 2 DPs only in one minor power. Rule geared towards limiting France's advantage.
  • Rule Change: May no longer allocate DPs to a minor one intends to support an attack against.
  • Abolished Rule: "If, during a Spring or Fall turn, a Great Power allocates more DPs to minor powers than it is entitled to, all of that Great Power’s DPs are forfeited for that particular turn."
  • Rules Change: Vassals and Allies now effectively operate the same way. Only feature: Increasing DP bonus for patron. No more impact on victory for vassals/allies/imperial subjects.
  • Ally Changes: Ukraine Russian instead of Polish, Portugal English instead of French, Croatia no longer Turkish vassal, Savoy no longer French ally, Persia Austrian ally
  • Build Site Additions: England - Holland & Morocco, Poland - Wallachia, no longer Ukraine, Lorraine no longer French build site
  • Name Change: United Provinces > Holland
  • Altered Adjacencies: Gascony @ Paris, Bulgaria @ Hungary, Brunswick not @ Brandenburg, Atlantic Ocean @ Egypt
  • Space Addition: Silistria


  • Rule Change: Remote Turkestan Rule abolished.
  • Rule Change: Imperial Subjects Rule abolished.
  • Rule Change: 2 DPs (one each from two powers) suffice for a sortie order to be considered by the GM.
  • Client Additions: Austria - Candia,Poland - Saxony, Russia - Turkestan, Sweden - Mecklenburg, Swabia.
  • Build Site Additions: Denmark - Brunswick, France - Flanders, Lorraine, Sweden - Brandenburg.
  • Name Change: Dauphiné > Dauphiny


  • Build Site Additions: France - Savoy, Spain - Tuscany
  • Space Addition: Kartli


  • Client Change: Courland an English client instead of Poland's.
  • Build Site Additions: Turkey - Algiers, Tunis.


  • Rule Change: For a sortie order for a client minor power to be considered by the GM when determining which order that minor power will execute, the sortie needs to be backed by its patron OR requires two or more DPs from other great powers. No such restrictions are in place for non-client minor powers.
  • Rule Change: The DP bonus increases only after every two years.
  • Client Additions: England - Brunswick, Spain - Ireland, Savoy.
  • Client Removals: England - Courland, Ireland.
  • Space Addition: Oldenburg, Mazovia, Vladimir.
  • Space Removal: East Frisia.
  • Name Change: Astrakhan > Kazan
  • Altered Adjacencies: Atlantic Ocean @ Bristol, Gulf of Bothnia @ Ducal Prussia, Kazan @ Moscow, Aegean Sea @ Damascus.


  • Unit Change: Ducal Prussia has a fleet instead of an army.
  • Client Removal: Savoy is no longer a Spanish client.


  • Client Removal: Brunswick is no longer an English client.
  • Space Removals: Extremadura, La Mancha.

Summary v8.5

  • Since v2.0 a new 42 spaces have been added to the game, while 14 have been removed, i.e. a net addition of 28 spaces (among which are 5 SC provinces). The game now includes 139 spaces. 60 of these are SC provinces.
  • As such the map now has a considerably higher buffer-to-SC ratio. It rose from 1.91 to 2.32 (v8.5). Standard Diplomacy clocks in at 2.2. Stephen Agar once recommended remain within the 2.0 to 2.5 range.

Space Names and Abbreviations

All spaces on the 1648 map, along with their abbreviations, are listed below. SCs are annotated with an asterisk (*).

Abo*                   Abo
Adriatic Sea           ADR  
Aegean Sea             AEG
Albania                Alb
Algiers*               Alg
Anhalt                 Anh
Arabia                 Ara
Aragon                 Arg
Arctic Ocean           ARC
Armenia                Arm
Atlantic Ocean         ATL
Baltic Sea             BAL
Barbary Sea            BAR 
Bavaria*               Bav
Bay of Luebeck         BOL
Belgrade*              Bel
Black Ruthenia         BRu
Black Sea              BLA
Bohuslan               Boh
Bosnia                 Bos
Brandenburg*           Bra
Brest*                 Bre
Bristol*               Bri
Brunswick*             Bwk
Bulgaria               Bul
Caledonian Ocean       CAL
Candia*                Cnd
Cantabrian Sea         CAN
Caspian Sea            CAS
Christiania*           Chr

Constantinople*        Con
Copenhagen*            Cop
Courland*              Cou
Cracow*                Cra
Crimea*                Cri

Croatia*               Cro
Dalmatia               Dal
Damascus*              Dam
Dauphiny               Dau
Ducal Prussia*         DPr
Egypt                  Egy
English Channel        ENG
Finnmark               Fin
Flanders*              Fla
Franconia              Fra
Gascony                Gas
German Sea             GER
Greater Poland         GPo
Gulf of Bothnia        GOB
Gulf of Lion           GOL
Gulf of Venice         GOV
Helgoland Bight        HEL
Hesse                  Hes
Holland*               UPr 
Holstein*              Hol
Hungary                Hun
Iceland                Ice
Indian Ocean           IND
Ingria                 Ing
Ionian Sea             ION
Ireland*               Ire
Irish Sea              IRI
Karaman                Krm
Karelia                Kar
Kartli                 Ktl
Kazan                  Kaz
Lake Ladoga            LLA
Lapland                Lap
Leon                   Leo
Levantine Sea          LEV
Lombardy               Lom
London*                Lon
Lorraine*              Lor
Luxembourg             Lux
Madrid*                Mad
Marseille*             Mar
Mazovia                Maz
Mecklenburg*           Mec
Mesopotamia            Mes
Moldavia*              Mol
Morocco*               Mor
Moscow*                Mos
Naples*                Nap
Norwegian Sea          NOR
Novgorod*              Nov
Oldenburg*             Old
Papal States*          Pap
Paris*                 Par
Permia                 Prm
Persia*                Per
Picardy                Pic
Podolia                Pod
Polish Livonia         PLi
Portugal*              Por
Prague*                Pra
Pskov                  Psk
Riga*                  Rig
Rhineland*             Rhi
Royal Prussia          RPr
Sahara                 Sah
Samogitia              Sam
Sardinia               Sar
Savoy*                 Sav
Saxony*                Sax
Scania                 Sca
Scotland*              Sco
Severia                Svr
Seville*               Sev
Siberia                Sib
Sicily                 Sic
Silesia                Sil
Silistria              Sls
Skagerrak              SKA
Slovakia               Slo
Smolensk               Smo
Stettin*               Ste
Stockholm*             Sto
Strait of Sicily       SOS
Styria                 Sty
Swabia*                Swa
Switzerland*           Swi
Transylvania*          Tra
Trieste*               Tri
Tunis*                 Tun
Turkestan*             Tur
Tuscany*               Tus
Tyrolia                Tyr
Tyrrhenian Sea         TYS
Ukraine*               Ukr
Venice*                Ven
Vienna*                Vie
Vilna*                 Vil
Vitebsk                Vit
Vladimir               Vla
Volhynia               Vol
Voronezh*              Vor
Wallachia*             Wal
Warsaw*                War
White Ruthenia         WRu