1648 is a nine-player Diplomacy variant set in Europe following the Peace of Westphalia, the first adjucated season being Spring 1649.
1648's rules are based upon those of Ambition & Empire, a variant designed by Jeff Kase and Baron Powell. As its most striking departure from Standard Diplomacy, the latter first featured armed neutrals whose actions players may secretly influence by bidding Diplomacy Points (DPs).
Should you be interested in joining or observing a future game, contact me.
The map (v3.5) with space abbreviations:
All the rules of standard Diplomacy apply save those noted below:
Austria: A Prague, A Trieste, A Vienna. Denmark-Norway: F Christiania, F Copenhagen, A Holstein. England: F Bristol, F London. France: F Brest, A Marseilles, A Paris. Ottoman Empire: A Belgrade, F Constantinople, A Damascus. Poland-Lithuania: A Cracow, A Vilna, A Warsaw. Russia (Muscovy): A Moscow, A Novgorod, A Voronezh. Spain: A Flanders, A Madrid, F Naples, F Seville. Sweden: A Abo, A Riga, A Stettin, F Stockholm (East Coast).
Home Supply Centers (HSCs)
Note the additional HSCs (underlined below) on top of those controlled at the start of the game. Flanders is not considered a Spanish HSC and therefore does not serve as a Spanish build site.
Austria: Prague, Trieste, Vienna. Denmark-Norway: Christiania, Copenhagen, Holstein. England: Bristol, London, Ireland, Scotland. France: Brest, Marseilles, Paris, Lorraine. Ottoman Empire: Belgrade, Constantinople, Damascus. Poland-Lithuania: Cracow, Vilna, Warsaw, Courland, Moldavia, Ducal Prussia. Russia (Muscovy): Moscow, Novgorod, Voronezh, Crimea. Spain: Madrid, Naples, Seville. Sweden: Abo, Riga, Stettin, Stockholm.
Holy Roman Empire (of the German Nation)
The Holy Roman Emperor may build in any SC within the Holy Roman Empire (HRE) he controls. Following SCs (marked by a burgundy red circle border) belong to the HRE (hereafter HRESCs):
- Lower Saxony
The Great Power owning the most HRESCs is considered the Holy Roman Emperor and enjoys the described building privileges. The title only is transferred whenever one single Great Power other than the present office-holder (initially Austria) controls the most HRESCs.
Therefore, the imperial crown may only change hands during winter turns. As adjustments follow in Diplomacy upon winter SC control changes, it follows that a newly elected Holy Roman Emperor may immediately make use of his newly acquired building privileges.
In addition to the nine Great Powers, there is also a host of "minor powers", which are non-player neutral Supply Centres (SCs) representing the smaller states of Europe, North Africa and the Near East. These include (space names in bold) the following:
- The Regency of Algiers (an autonomous province of the Ottoman Empire)
- The Electorate of Bavaria
- The Electorate of Brandenburg
- The Venetian Colony of Candia
- The Duchy of Courland (an autonomous fiefdom of Poland-Lithuania)
- Rhineland-Westphalia (representing various territories belonging to the Lower-Rhenish, Electoral Rhenish and Lower Saxonian imperial circles)
- The Khanate of Crimea (a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire that includes the lands of the Crimean and Nagay Tatars)
- The Kingdom of Ireland
- The Duchy of Lorraine
- Lower Saxony (representing various territories belonging to the Lower Saxonian and Lower Rhenish-Westphalian imperial circles)
- Mecklenburg (representing the Duchies of Mecklenburg)
- The Principality of Moldavia (a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire)
- The Sultanate of Morocco
- The Papal States
- Persia (the Persian Empire)
- The Kingdom of Portugal
- The Duchy of Prussia (an autonomous fiefdom of Poland-Lithuania, called "Ducal Prussia" in the game as there's also a "Royal Prussia" space)
- The Duchy of Savoy
- The Electorate of Saxony
- The Kingdom of Scotland
- Swabia (representing various territories belonging to the Swabian and Upper Rhenish imperial circles)
- The Swiss Confederation (Switzerland)
- The Principality of Transylvania
- The Regency of Tunis (an autonomous province of the Ottoman Empire)
- The Khanates of Turkestan
- The Grand Duchy of Tuscany
- The United Provinces of the Netherlands
- The Republic of Venice
- The Cossack Hetmanate of the Ukraine
- The Principality of Wallachia (a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire)
Each minor power, although a "non-player," starts with a unit (unit color is black). All minor powers start with an army except for the following minors that start with a fleet: Algiers, Candia, Courland, Portugal, Tunis, the United Provinces and Venice.
Minor power units prevent a Great Power from simply moving into an empty space and gain-ing control of the SC. To occupy a minor power SC, a Great Power will need to move in with support. A minor power unit that is forced to retreat is disbanded. If a Great Power does not occupy the minor power SC at the end of a Fall turn, the minor power’s unit is automatically rebuilt in the Winter.
As in standard Diplomacy, a Great Power controls a minor power SC when one of its units occupies the space after a Fall turn has been played and completed. Once a Great Power gains control of a minor power SC, it can leave the SC vacant and still keep control of it as long as that SC is not occupied by another Great Power at the close of a Fall turn.
Minor power units do nothing but hold in place, unless the unit has been ordered by a Great Power using its Diplomacy Points.
At the start of the Spring and Fall turns, each Great Power receives one Diplomacy Point (DP) for each SC it controls, up to a maximum of three DPs per turn. EXCEPTION: England receives three DPs during the first game year despite only controlling two SCs.
During each Spring and Fall turn, each Great Power may allocate none, some, or all of its DPs to minor powers that still have units on the map, though no more than two of its DPs may be allocated to a particular minor power. (Design Note: This is a departure from the Ambition & Empire rules.)
For each DP allocated, the allocating Great Power submits an order for that particular minor power’s unit. A Great Power may only order a minor power to hold or support. A minor power can not be ordered to move/attack.
Unused DPs may not be carried over into the next turn. They are simply lost.
Players are not required to tell each other how they allocated their DPs. Just as with negotiations, players may honour their agreements with other players or not, as they see fit. Only the GM will know how Great Powers have allocated their DPs. DP allocation is not published in the adjudication; only the end results are published.
The GM determines how DPs have been allocated. In the event of a conflict, an order for a particular minor power’s unit is followed if it is supported by more DPs than any conflicting order. See the following example:
In Spring 1649, Austria allocates one DP to Swabia to get it to support an Austrian attack on Bavaria. France allocates one DP to Swabia to get it to support a French attack on Lorraine. In support of Austria, Spain allocates one DP to Swabia to get it to support the Austrian attack on Bavaria. Although Austria, France and Spain each allocated one DP to Swabia, the Austrians get the Swabian support because the Spaniards supported the Austrian diplomatic efforts with the Swabians.
If, during a Spring or Fall turn, a Great Power allocates more DPs to minor powers than it is entitled to or exceeds the limit of allocating two of its DPs to one particular minor power, all of that Great Power’s DPs are forfeited for that particular turn.
If a player is lost during the game, the GM is strongly encouraged to find a replacement player for the affected Great Power rather than have it lapse into civil disorder. In the event no replacement player is found and the GM declares the Great Power to be in permanent civil disorder, the following rules apply:
- All units of the Great Power in civil disorder (GPCD) are immediately disbanded.
- All SCs controlled by the GPCD that are unoccupied are immediately considered newly independent minor powers. Minor power army units are built in those minor power spaces.
- All SCs controlled by the GPCD that are occupied by a unit belonging to another Great Power are unaffected. If the occupying Great Power moves its unit out of the GPCD’s SC so that the SC is unoccupied at the conclusion of a Fall turn, a minor power army unit is built there and that SC is considered a newly independent minor power.
- For the remainder of the game, all newly independent minor powers are subject to the provisions of regarding minor powers. In particular, this means the new minor power can be influenced using Diplomacy Points.
- Once a Great Power is declared to be in permanent civil disorder, it may not be played by an active player again.
As soon as one Great Power controls 15 SCs, the game ends immediately and the player representing that Great Power is the winner.
If two Great Powers each gain control of 15 or more SCs at the same time, the player representing the Great Power with the most SCs is considered the winner. If the two Great Powers each control the same number of SCs, the game continues until one player has 15 or more SCs and that player has more SCs than any other player.
Players may terminate the game by mutual agreement before a winner is determined. If this occurs, any decision reached by the players (e.g., concede game to one player, concede game to an alliance) must be accepted unanimously. If the players cannot agree, all players who still have pieces on the board when the game ends share equally in a draw.
• Constantinople, Copenhagen, Ingria and Scania are canal provinces and hence fleets located there are not designated as being on any particular coast.
• Red arrows indicate that two spaces are adjacent to another, allowing any units to operate across it.
This section will in future be expanded.
Two detailed articles about the variant may be found in previous DIPLOMACY WORLD issues:
Note that these articles are based on an earlier variant version.
This section will be expanded.
Emperor Ferdinand III (1637-57) Head of Privy Council: Max, Count Trauttmannsdorff (1634-50)
King Frederick III
Commonwealth of England
Oliver Cromwell (Lord Protector, 1653-58)
King Louis XIV, the Sun King (1643-1715) Chief Minister: Jules Mazarin (1643-61)
Sultan Mehmed IV, the Hunter (1648-87) Regent: Kösem Sultan Grand Vizier: Sofu Mehmed Pasha (1648-49)
King John II Casimir (1648-68)
Tsar Alexis (1645-76)
King Phillip IV (1621-65)
Queen Christine (1632-54)
Space Names and Abbreviations
All spaces on the 1648 map, along with their abbreviations, are listed below. SCs are annotated with an asterisk (*).
Abo* Abo Adriatic Sea ADR Aegean Sea AEG Algiers* Alg Arabia Ara Aragon Arg Arctic Ocean ARC Armenia Arm Astrakhan Ast Atlantic Ocean ATL Azerbaijan Aze Baltic Sea BAL Barbary Sea BAR Bavaria* Bav Bay of Luebeck BOL Belgrade* Bel Black Ruthenia BRu Black Sea BLA Bohuslan Boh Brandenburg* Bra Brest* Bre Bristol* Bri Bulgaria Bul Caledonian Ocean CAL Candia* Cnd Cantabrian Sea CAN Caspian Sea CAS Christiania* Chr Constantinople* Con Copenhagen* Cop Courland* Cou Cracow* Cra Crimea* Cri Croatia Cro Dalmatia Dal Damascus* Dam Dauphiné Dau Devon Dev Ducal Prussia* DPr Egypt Egy English Channel ENG Finnmark Fin Flanders* Fla Franconia Fra Gascony Gas German Sea GER Greater Poland GPo Gulf of Bothnia GOB Gulf of Lion GOL Gulf of Sirte GOS Helgoland Bight HEL Hesse Hes Holstein* Hol Hungary Hun Iceland Ice Illyria Ill Indian Ocean IND Ingria Ing Ionian Sea ION Ireland* Ire Irish Sea IRI Karaman Krm Karelia Kar Lake Ladoga LLA Lapland Lap Leon Leo Levantine Sea LEV Lombardy Lom London* Lon Lorraine* Lor Lower Saxony* LSa Luxembourg Lux Madrid* Mad Marseilles* Mar Mecklenburg* Mec Mesopotamia Mes Moldavia* Mol Morocco* Mor Moscow* Mos Naples* Nap Norwegian Sea NORn Novgorod* Nov Onega One Papal States* Pap Paris* Par Permia Prm Persia* Per Picardy Pic Podolia Pod Polish Livonia PLi Portugal* Por Prague* Pra Pskov Psk Riga* Rig Rhineland-Westphalia* RWe Royal Prussia RPr Sahara Sah Samogitia Sam Sardinia Sar Savoy* Sav Saxony* Sax Scania Sca Scotland* Sco Severia Svr Seville* Sev Siberia Sib Sicily Sic Silesia Sil Skagerrak SKA Slovakia Slo Smolensk Smo Stettin* Ste Stockholm* Sto Strait of Sicily SOS Swabia* Swa Switzerland* Swi Transylvania* Tra Trieste* Tri Tunis* Tun Turkestan* Tur Tuscany* Tus Tyrolia Tyr Tyrrhenian Sea TYS Ukraine* Ukr United Provinces* UPr Venice* Ven Vienna* Vie Vilna* Vil Vitebsk Vit Volhynia Vol Voronezh* Vor Wallachia* Wal Warsaw* War White Ruthenia WRu Yorkshire Yor