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1648 v5.8

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Category: Variant

Contents

Introduction

1648 is a nine-player Diplomacy variant set in Europe following the Peace of Westphalia, the first adjucated season being Spring 1649.

1648's rules are based upon those of Ambition & Empire, a variant designed by Jeff Kase and Baron Powell. As its most striking departure from Standard Diplomacy, the latter first featured armed neutrals whose actions players may secretly influence by bidding Diplomacy Points (DPs).

Should you be interested in joining or observing a future game, contact me.

Maps

The map (v5.8) with starting units:

Image:1648_58 48_4second.gif


The map (v5.8) with space abbreviations:

Image:1648_58second.gif

Rules

All the rules of standard Diplomacy apply save those noted below:

Great Powers

Initial Setup

Austria (HRE):           A Prague, F Trieste, A Vienna.
Denmark-Norway:          F Christiania, F Copenhagen, A Holstein.
England:                 F Bristol, F London.
France:                  F Brest, A Marseilles, A Paris.
Poland-Lithuania:        A Cracow, A Vilna, A Warsaw.
Russia (Muscovy):        A Moscow, A Novgorod, A Voronezh.
Spain:                   A Flanders, A Madrid, F Naples, F Seville.
Sweden:                  A Abo, A Riga, A Stettin, F Stockholm (East Coast). 
Turkey (Ottoman Empire): A Belgrade, F Constantinople, A Damascus. 

Home Supply Centers (HSCs)

Austria (HRE): 	         Prague, Trieste, Vienna.
Denmark-Norway:          Christiania, Copenhagen, Holstein.
England: 	         Bristol, London.
France: 	         Brest, Marseille, Paris. 
Poland-Lithuania:        Cracow, Vilna, Warsaw.
Russia (Muscovy):        Moscow, Novgorod, Voronezh.
Spain:                   Madrid, Naples, Seville. 
Sweden:                  Abo, Riga, Stettin, Stockholm.
Turkey (Ottoman Empire): Belgrade, Constantinople, Damascus.

Flanders is not considered a Spanish HSC and therefore does not serve as a Spanish build site.

In a addition to being able to build in the above-listed HSCs, powers may build in their vassals' SCs (once controlled) as well as the following additional build sites (again only once controlled):

Austria (HRE): 	         Croatia, Transylvania. 
Poland-Lithuania:        Ducal Prussia, Moldavia.
Russia (Muscovy):        Crimea, Ukraine.

Note that some of the above are also vassals or allies of other powers.

Minor Powers

In addition to the nine Great Powers, there is also a host of "minor powers", which are non-player neutral Supply Centres (SCs) representing the smaller states of Europe, North Africa and the Near East. These include (space names in bold) the following:

Each minor power, although a "non-player," starts with a unit (unit colour is white). All minor powers start with an army except for the following minors that start with a fleet: Algiers, Candia, Courland, Morocco, Portugal, Tunis, the United Provinces and Venice.

Minor power units prevent a Great Power from simply moving into an empty space and gaining control of the SC. To occupy a minor power SC, a Great Power will need to move in with support. A minor power unit that is forced to retreat is disbanded. If a Great Power does not occupy the minor power SC at the end of a Fall turn, the minor power’s unit is automatically rebuilt in the Winter.

A Great Power controls a minor power SC when one of its units occupies the space after a Fall turn has been played and completed. Once a Great Power gains control of a minor power SC, it can leave the SC vacant and still keep control of it as long as that SC is not occupied by another Great Power at the close of a Fall turn.

Minor power units do nothing but hold in place, unless the unit has been ordered by a Great Power using its Diplomacy Points.

Diplomacy Points

Each Great Power receives a set number of Diplomacy Points (DPs) every Spring and Fall turn. France gets 5 DPs, while the other Great Power are allocated 3 DPs each. Deduct 1 DP from a Great Power's DP budget for each SC it originally owned, yet is controlled by another power.

During each Spring and Fall turn, each Great Power may allocate DPs to minor powers that still have units on the map, though no more than two of its DPs may be allocated to any particular minor power. (Design Note: This is a departure from the Ambition & Empire rules.)

A Major Power may not allocate any DPs to a minor power SC it intends to attack during the current game turn.

For each DP allocated, the allocating Great Power submits an order for that particular minor power’s unit. A Great Power may order a minor power to move, hold or support. A minor power's unit given a move order (also known as a "sortie") will not actually move. However, the move action may cut support and bounce other units.

If a minor power unit is given a move order that under Standard rules would result in it moving, the order will result in the unit remaining in its starting territory, but no other unit may retreat or move into the territory the minor successfully attacked. A unit already in the target territory at turn start will not be dislodged.

The GM determines how DPs have been allocated. In the event of a conflict, an order for a particular minor power’s unit is followed if it is supported by more DPs than any conflicting order.

For a move/sortie order to be considered by the GM when determining which order a minor power will execute, at least one player will have to spend 2 DPs on the move/sortie order in question. Client bonuses (Vassals, Allies and Imperial Principalities) count towards this 2 DP requirement.

Unused DPs may not be carried over into the next turn. They are simply lost.

Players are not required to tell each other how they allocated their DPs. Just as with negotiations, players may honour their agreements with other players or not, as they see fit. Only the GM will know how Great Powers have allocated their DPs. DP allocation is not published in the adjudication; only the end results are published.

If, during a Spring or Fall turn, a Great Power allocates more DPs to minor powers than it is entitled to, all of that Great Power’s DPs are forfeited for that particular turn.

Example:

In Spring 1649, Austria allocates one DP to Swabia to get it to support an Austrian attack on Bavaria. France allocates one DP to Swabia to get it to support a French attack on Lorraine. In support of Austria, Spain allocates one DP to Swabia to get it to support the Austrian attack on Bavaria. Although Austria, France and Spain each allocated one DP to Swabia, the Austrians get the Swabian support because the Spaniards supported the Austrian diplomatic efforts with the Swabians.

Clients

Clients (vassals, (minor power) allies, imperial subjects) bestow certain privileges on their great power patrons:

Vassals

A minor power may be the vassal of a great power (i.e. its suzerain).

Benefits of being a minor power's suzerain:

These are the respective powers' vassals:

England: 	         Ireland, Scotland.
France: 	         Lorraine.
Poland-Lithuania:        Courland, Ukraine.
Turkey (Ottoman Empire): Algiers, Crimea, Croatia, Tunis.

Allies

A minor power may be an (junior) ally of a great power (i.e. senior ally).

Benefits of being a minor power's ally:

Under the v5.8 rules only France has any allies. Those being:

Imperial Subjects

The Emperor (i.e. Austria) enjoys the following privileges in Holy Roman Empire (HRE) minor powers:

Following minors belong to the HRE:

Their SC dots are partially marked in grey. HRE SCs initially controlled by great powers are marked the same way, though this has no game effect.

Victory Conditions

As soon as one Great Power controls 18 SCs, the game ends immediately and the player representing that Great Power is the winner.

A surviving vassal's SC counts for victory purposes towards its suzerain's SC total.

If two Great Powers each gain control of 18 or more SCs at the same time, the player representing the Great Power with the most SCs is considered the winner. If the two Great Powers each control the same number of SCs, the game continues until one player has 18 or more SCs and that player has more SCs than any other player.

Players may terminate the game by mutual agreement before a winner is determined. If this occurs, any decision reached by the players (e.g., concede game to one player, concede game to an alliance) must be accepted unanimously. If the players cannot agree, all players who still have pieces on the board when the game ends share equally in a draw.

Map Clarifications

• Constantinople, Copenhagen, Ingria and Scania are canal provinces and hence fleets located there are not designated as being on any particular coast. Note the Neva river (a thick blue line) runs through Ingria.

• Red arrows indicate that two spaces are adjacent to another.

• Constantinople encompasses Northwestern Anatolia, much of mainland Greece and Thrace as well as the Sea of Marmara. So the space borders the Ionian Sea (among other spaces) to the West.

• Note that the Atlantic and Indian Oceans adjoin. In other words, fleets may "circumnavigate Africa".

• Ducal Prussia and Courland are adjacent, whereas the Baltic Sea and Samogitia are not.

Civil Disorder (Optional Rule)

If a player is lost during the game, the GM is strongly encouraged to find a replacement player for the affected Great Power rather than have it lapse into civil disorder. In the event no replacement player is found and the GM declares the Great Power to be in permanent civil disorder, the following rules apply:

Game Notes

Two detailed articles about the variant may be found in previous DIPLOMACY WORLD issues:

First Article

Second Article

Note that these articles are based on an earlier variant version.

Brief Introduction to the Major Powers

Austria

AUSTRIA is bang in the centre of the map. Lots of growth options (especially HRE, Italy, South-Eastern "Borderlands" minor power cluster), but doesn't really have the prospect of ever establishing a secure edge position.

Denmark-Norway

DENMARK-NORWAY is stringed along a North-South Axis. Effectively sandwiched between England and Sweden. Well-positioned to expand southwards into the HRE goodies. But that further stretches DN on that vertical axis. So at some point Denmark will have to consolidate a more compact position by either turning East or West. Position favours a nice mix of fleets and armies.

Commonwealth of England

ENGLAND starts off smaller than any other power. But in a good position to secure her Celtic backyard and thus gain those extra build sites. A major advantage balancing her modest initial size is that she holds considerable diplomatic trump cards. Danish-Swedish and Franco-Spanish relations have a lot of in-built friction. That's something Cromwell needs to exploit to good effect. Under wise rule, England will often prosper (as in the present game). Intially small, diplomatically favoured, most navally oriented power, island position: Those factors make England very unique.

France

FRANCE enjoys the most compact starting-position of any power. All three initial SCs adjoin. This considerably helps home defence. Louis XIV is well-positioned to secure Lorraine, a potential French build site. Good access to the central minor power cluster. Plus access to the Atlantic sphere. One key question the Sun-King will have to adress is how to deal with Spain - a power which half-encircles "la hexagone". A Franco-Spanish alliance could be very strong. But the temptation for either power to attack the other is also there. Already a sortie by the Brest fleet into the Cantabrian Sea creates considerable difficulties for Spain. Though a move to ENG is also strong and might smother England before Cromwell can consolidate his position. More defensive play might mean bouncing A Flanders in Normandy and thus concentrating on the East for early builds. Successful eastward expansion could bring France into collision course with the Emperor. Indeed seizing the Imperial Crown is possible! But one can also nicely divide the central spoils with Austria: Lorraine, Switzerland and Savoy being within the French sphere, Swabia possibly left as a minor power buffer and Austria taking Saxony-Bavaria-Venice. With such an arrangement extended by France taking Tuscany and Austria the Papal States, the only place where the two spheres immediately touch would be on the Tus-Pap border. A perfectly sustainable arrangement for both, allowing France to focus on other theatres of operations. Or not, if France opts for a continued push eastwards.... I believe France faces lots of interesting challenges and options. Compact, somewhat more land-based than naval orientation, interesting question regarding Spanish "encirclement", Turkey very much a natural ally... Some key facets of France's position.

Poland-Lithuania

POLAND-LITHUANIA is a central power. Key for her is the Russo-Swedish-Polish triangle. I rate Austria and Denmark as natural allies. Good access to minor powers. A whopping three additional potential build sites promises considerable flexibility. Very much a land-based power. Non-contiguous home SCs somewhat complicate home defence. Though Warsaw is the only great power home SC no other rival can threaten within the opening year. So that compensates for Vilna being fairly vulnerable to attack. Relations with Russia are tricky. A bit like Austro-Turkish relations in Standard. Though with Sweden and Turkey on Russia's flanks, there are ways to keep the Czar honest without actually storming the East. Though if doing so, Poland might anchor her position along the map edge.


Russia (Muscovy)

RUSSIA enjoys an edge position. But it may not feel like one. For, by design, it's nothing like the fairly secure corner position Standard's "witches" can call their own. Russia is best-placed to seize the Crimea. A potential Russian build site. The Polish-Swedish-Russian triangle (or Baltic quadrangle, if you include Denmark in the equation) is a key concern for the Czar. Courland being a point of Polish-Swedish contention presents considerable diplomatic opportunity. Regarding the Sublime Porte, Russia arguably holds the better diplomatic cards in that it can more gravely threaten Turkey than vice versa. Austria and especially Spain might prove very handy allies in a crusading campaign. A more secure edge position beckons following such a campaign. And would make Central Asia (Persia, Turkestan) an undisputed Russian domain. Russia is among the least maritime-oriented powers. But it has immediate access to the Northern Seas, potential access to the Baltic and Black Seas (also Caspian, but that is very much a backwater which very rarely should see any action).

Spain

SPAIN is all over the place! Flanders and Naples are very far removed from Iberia. Of these, Naples is far more important. Indeed, I rate Naples as Spain's most useful home SC. Building an empire in the Central Mediterranean may be key to Spanish success. As for Flanders, it's not even a home SC! So really no prospect of reinforcements there. It's more of a diplomatic pawn than a base for sustained expansion. So A Flanders should best be viewed as being subservient to Spain's wider cause. The Army of Flanders could indeed prove a useful wandering nomad. Spain's fundamentally a Mediterreanean power. She will try to secure the Maghreb for herself and link up Iberia with Naples. Naturally such Mediterranean ambitions impinge on Turkish interests. Spain's nightmare is a Franco-Turkish alliance against her. As such, any attack of hers against either could see the other quickly joining the party. This danger seriously complicates plans for attacking either and means that Spain should adopt a very broad diplomatic outlook, making sure France and Turkey are kept preoccupied in other theatres of operations. Spain, yet more than other powers, needs to play the whole board! Spanish summary: Far-flung domains, four initial units, threat of Franco-Turkish alliance, generally naval orientation, needs to play the "whole board" yet more than others, generally perceived as strong and as such probably often at a disadvantage in DP contests, can consolidate a powerful Mediterranean corner position.

Sweden

SWEDEN shares two characteristics with Spain: Both have four non-contiguous initial SCs. Though these are all arrayed around the Baltic. As such, turning the Baltic into a Swedish lake should be a priority. Denmark most immediately poses a threat to such Baltic hegemony, but so might Russia and Poland further down the road. As for expansion at the expense of minor powers, Stockholm might not have the easiest time of it. In Northern Germany, Sweden has the first claim to Brandenburg, but beyond that SC, it'd be stepping on other powers' toes. Indeed, the HRE might be described as a dangerous pool of sharks. Especially the two Scandinavians' spheres of interest tend to overlap there. As for the Baltic SC cluster (Ducal Prussia, Courland), expansion there poses potential difficulties with Poland. In brief: Sweden may be envied by others for starting off with four units. But in all likelihood with have to work harder for her first gains! Indeed, such are those difficulties that Sweden may be among those powers most ready to immediately invade another great power. The position thus encourages early aggressive play as befits Vasa warrior-kings!

Turkey

TURKEY might consider itself a corner power. But that corner is initially very vulnerable. Her neighbours have good reason not to let her consolidate that corner position. To the West, the two Habsburg powers are natural allies. They could very effectively pool DPs. The Venetians on Crete could thus help the Spaniards storm Constantinople. Or the Wallachians ease the Austrians' path into Belgrade. And then there's the Czar... Any move by the Czar into Armenia will cause the Sultan fits! So while Turkey benefits from plenty of growth options around her, I'd say no other power is as vulnerable to a devastating opening attack. If the Sultan overcomes that initial vulnerability, then much can be made of that position. Armies and fleets may well play an equal role in Turkish plans. Perhaps moreso than any other power. Diplomatically speaking, France is very much a natural ally. And Spain arguably the most dangerous foe. The Med may often amount to an expensive Turkish-Spanish zero-sum contest and may often be Turkey's primary theatre of operations.

Version Changelog since v2.0

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.5

2.8

2.9

3.0

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

3.6

3.7

4.3

4.4

4.6

4.8

4.9

5.0

5.1

5.4

5.5

5.6

5.7

5.8

Summary v5.8

Space Names and Abbreviations

All spaces on the 1648 map, along with their abbreviations, are listed below. SCs are annotated with an asterisk (*).

Abo*                   Abo
Adriatic Sea           ADR  
Aegean Sea             AEG
Albania                Alb
Algiers*               Alg
Anhalt                 Anh
Arabia                 Ara
Aragon                 Arg
Arctic Ocean           ARC
Armenia                Arm
Astrakhan              Ast
Atlantic Ocean         ATL
Baltic Sea             BAL
Barbary Sea            BAR 
Bavaria*               Bav
Bay of Luebeck         BOL
Belgrade*              Bel
Black Ruthenia         BRu
Black Sea              BLA
Bohuslan               Boh
Bosnia                 Bos
Brandenburg*           Bra
Brest*                 Bre
Bristol*               Bri
Brunswick*             Bwk
Bulgaria               Bul
Caledonian Ocean       CAL
Candia*                Cnd
Cantabrian Sea         CAN
Caspian Sea            CAS
Christiania*           Chr
Constantinople*        Con
Copenhagen*            Cop
Courland*              Cou
Cracow*                Cra
Crimea*                Cri 
Croatia*               Cro
Dalmatia               Dal
Damascus*              Dam
Dauphiné               Dau
Ducal Prussia*         DPr
East Frisia            EFr
Egypt                  Egy
English Channel        ENG
Extremadura            Ext
Finnmark               Fin
Flanders*              Fla
Franconia              Fra
Gascony                Gas
German Sea             GER
Greater Poland         GPo
Gulf of Bothnia        GOB
Gulf of Lion           GOL
Gulf of Venice         GOV
Helgoland Bight        HEL
Hesse                  Hes
Holstein*              Hol
Hungary                Hun
Iceland                Ice
Indian Ocean           IND
Ingria                 Ing
Ionian Sea             ION
Ireland*               Ire
Irish Sea              IRI
Karaman                Krm
Karelia                Kar
Lake Ladoga            LLA
La Mancha              LMa
Lapland                Lap
Leon                   Leo
Levantine Sea          LEV
Lombardy               Lom
London*                Lon
Lorraine*              Lor
Luxembourg             Lux
Madrid*                Mad
Marseille*             Mar
Mecklenburg*           Mec 
Mesopotamia            Mes
Moldavia*              Mol
Morocco*               Mor
Moscow*                Mos
Naples*                Nap
Norwegian Sea          NOR
Novgorod*              Nov
Papal States*          Pap
Paris*                 Par
Permia                 Prm
Persia*                Per
Picardy                Pic
Podolia                Pod
Polish Livonia         PLi
Portugal*              Por
Prague*                Pra
Pskov                  Psk
Riga*                  Rig
Rhineland-Westphalia*  Rhi
Royal Prussia          RPr
Sahara                 Sah
Samogitia              Sam
Sardinia               Sar
Savoy*                 Sav
Saxony*                Sax
Scania                 Sca
Scotland*              Sco
Severia                Svr
Seville*               Sev
Siberia                Sib
Sicily                 Sic
Silesia                Sil
Skagerrak              SKA
Slovakia               Slo
Smolensk               Smo
Stettin*               Ste
Stockholm*             Sto
Strait of Sicily       SOS
Styria                 Sty
Swabia*                Swa
Switzerland*           Swi
Transylvania*          Tra
Trieste*               Tri
Tunis*                 Tun
Turkestan*             Tur
Tuscany*               Tus
Tyrolia                Tyr
Tyrrhenian Sea         TYS
Ukraine*               Ukr
United Provinces*      UPr
Venice*                Ven
Vienna*                Vie
Vilna*                 Vil
Vitebsk                Vit
Volhynia               Vol
Voronezh*              Vor
Wallachia*             Wal
Warsaw*                War
White Ruthenia         WRu

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